Construction machinery is a business card "China Manufacturing", many devices can be described as "big foreign weighing", and its key components "card neck" have always received attention. The reporter learned in Changsha and other places in "Engineering Machinery". In recent years, the domestic construction machinery industry has continuously improved, "top", but some high-end components still rely on imports, domestic parts There is also a gap from "useful".
As the industry accelerates intelligent, digital transformation, controller, sensor, etc., in front of the company, urgently need to work hard. The domestic parts "top" is located in the "No. 18 factory building" in Changsha Economic Development Zone, Hunan Province, a busy production sight. The design of the workshop is not the honor obtained by the company, but the engine, motor, bearings, hydraulic parts, etc.
The staff said that these key components are three-one design, manufacturing, and achieve comprehensive applications.
This is a microcosm of the industry crack key parts bottleneck. In fact, the construction machinery industry has a "card neck" problem for a long time.
So before 2010, many excavators produced in the Chinese market were decided by foreign cylinder companies, because the domestic cylinder sealing is not good, it is easy to leak oil, and the tank required for excavators can only rely on imports. 2020 new crown pneumonia epidemic situation is spread globally, and some domestic construction machinery companies are facing the severity of overseas parts suppliers, which is a sharp situation, which once again sounds the alarm on the supply chain.
The person in charge of a company told reporters that in June last year, a brand of automotive chassis in foreign countries was broken, and the main plant had to quickly find alternative products in China. However, this crisis did not truly attacked the neck of the domestic construction machinery industry.
In the insiders, this is benefited in recent years to continue to increase research and development investment in recent years, and promote localization of key components, and domestic parts can "top" in critical moments. According to the analysis of the China Machinery Industry Federation, under the promotion of the guidance and market demand of the national "strong base" project, a group of key components with independent intellectual property have realized significant breakthroughs in technology and scale applications, part of the core components. " The problem is relieved. Taking Xugong as an example, 20% of the "card neck" technique is "card neck" in key technologies that are critical during the "Thirteen" period. Today, the host of Xugong’s crane, excavator, etc., realizes full-profile systemized supporting, hydraulic parts, transmission parts, and electricity rapid increase in electric parts. "Key parts are a field of investment, and it is difficult to see in the short term. Once the ‘card neck’, the taste is not good." Wang Min, chairman of Xugong Group Construction Machinery Co., Ltd. said, now, many research and development in China The results have reached the international advanced level, and many independent controlled hard core technologies are in their hands. Since 2005, Sany Heavy Industries has set up more than 10 parts companies, and the key components are developed and industrialized through independent innovation and collaborative innovation.
This host company has a number of key components "called", such as San ZTE has become one of the largest scale, the most variety of hydraulic cylinders, three self-produced engines and chassis begin to be applied to the project. Mechanical and heavy trucks. Trinity, presidents believe that the key components are too dependent on foreign countries, and the industrial chain will be very fragile, which is both security issues and cost issues.
After years of efforts, the three domestic allocation rates continued to improve the overall competitiveness of the company. To the "last 10%", it was learned that although the construction machinery components made a long progress, there is still a problem of "high-end product missing, low-end product homogeneration". High-end hydraulic parts, high-end chassis, large tonnage engine, etc., facing the price of high price, long cycle, unstable supply, etc.
Sun Changjun, Vice President of Zoomlion, believes that in the field of medium and low-end equipment, parts are gradually achieved, but some high-end key components are still imported from Europe and America. At present, China Construction Machinery Leading Host Companies have been in the first camp in the global industry. Once the company enters the "high-end competition" "boutique competition" stage, it may be "card neck".
The reporter learned that due to the gap between materials, design, manufacturing process, some domestic key components have a lack of stability, reliability, and durability, leading to customers, do not dare to use. For example, nuclear power plant lifting requires a large tonnage crane, and customers have to use foreign products for domestic key components. Excavators are called "Pearls on Engineering Machinery Crown", due to its high performance requirements, the engine has a large number of foreign brands.
In addition, domestic key components still lack innovation, and some components stay in the stage of imitation foreign products.
In particular, the frontier product is behind people, such as the "single" engine of the car crane, is first launched by German companies, and the domestic enterprises follow into learning.
Wang Min believes that the China Construction Machinery Industry has solved 90% of problems, but the most important thing is to overcome the last 10%, which is like climbing the last few hundred meters of Mount Everest.
The core parts of China Construction Machinery Industry should be advanced to "high-tech and excellent", "must" main at high ends, high-end tips ". On the one hand, we must pay attention to basic innovation. He Qinghua, Chairman of Shanhe Intelligent, said that it is necessary to break through the design "threshold" of high-end key components, not "sports, money" can solve, but to cultivate fine, fight hard, encourage enterprises with stunt in a certain aspect R & D under the heart.
For a single main plant research and development parts, the market is too small, not cost-effective, can guide, focus on investment funds, focus on the high-end core parts enterprises, and finally radiate the entire industry. On the other hand, there are industry insiders recommended to learn from new energy vehicles to new energy vehicles, subsidize end users, guide and motivate domestic key components, and cultivate the market to solve the past domestic products are not accepted and there is no way to improve. And iterative problems. Exploring the new project of intelligent transitions At present, the construction machinery industry has accelerated intelligent, digital transformation, and major enterprises are in the layout intelligent manufacturing plant, 5G remote control excavator, unmanned crane, unmanned roller, unmanned mixer and other new equipment.
The reporter learned that traditional manufacturing companies are weak in intelligence, digital field, and face some new "card neck" issues from R & D design to production service.
The person in charge of the Equipment Industry Department of Hunan Provincial Department of Industry and Information Technology said that the original manufacturing "card neck" is mainly at a core component, such as engine, hydraulic parts, and more important "card necks" with intelligent upgrades "The problem is to manufacture manufacturing equipment for high-end precision machining. The reporter saw in the intelligent manufacturing workshop of a construction machinery company, and the entire workshop has hundreds of industrial robots.
Technicians have admitted that many "tools" in the hardware level, intelligent production lines, industrial robots need to import from Japan and other countries; in software level, digitization, intelligent unless "algorithm", now mostly foreign algorithms. Not only that, but also the simulation analysis of the construction machinery industry and other industrial software, known as the "brain" controller of the construction machinery and the sensor all over the device, and also needs to import. R & D personnel of a construction machinery company say that the controller is highly required, and foreign companies do not open the "bottom" of the controller (ie, the hardware matched drive, equivalent to the mobile phone and the mobile phone ", and domestic enterprises are subject to people, only A small application programming can be made on its platform. The person in charge of the above-mentioned IC Department recommends that vigorously promotes the short board equipment research, guiding enterprises to make full use of digital, networked technology, research and development intelligent equipment products.
Putting the enhanced intelligent manufacturing supply capacity in a more prominent position, speeding up breaking through the intelligent manufacturing core equipment and industrial software system, fill the key equipment, basic components, system software and other short boards as soon as possible. Industry insiders pointed out that cracking new "card neck" issues, traditional manufacturing companies cannot sing alone, and integrate industry resources, forming capacity complementary, interest sharing, and risk-sharing industrial ecotries.
The reporter learned that some companies have been in harmony with domestic suppliers, explore the cooperative innovation model of building intelligence and digitization.